FDA Total Diet Study (TDS): Results
There are multiple ways to view the results of the FDA Total Diet Study (TDS). The FDA TDS Report summarizes and analyzes the fiscal years 2018-2020 data; and TDS data are also available to download. Additional history, documentation, analyses, and interpretations of TDS data are available in publications.
Currently, the Fiscal Years 2018 - 2020 TDS Elements Report (in PDF) and Supplement (in PDF and Excel) are available.
FY2018-FY2020 TDS Elements Report Supplement: Summary of Analytical Results (in PDF) and (in Excel)
The FY2018-FY2020 TDS Pesticide and Radionuclide Reports will be posted soon.
Before downloading the TDS data, please read the following information, which may inform your interpretation of the data.
Data from Fiscal Years 2018 – 2020
Beginning in Fiscal Year 2018, TDS foods are identified as “regional” foods or “national” foods. Elements and pesticides are measured for all collections. Radionuclides are measured in every other regional food collection.
Currently the FY2018-FY2020 elements data are available, and the pesticide and radionuclide data will be posted soon.
How to access and understand the files below: First, read the FY18-FY20 Elements Data Key to understand what each column in the file represents. Second, click on the .csv file to download the data:
|FY2018-FY2020 Analytical Results||Coming Soon!||Coming Soon!|
TDS Data prior to Fiscal Year 2018
Please see FDA Total Diet Study 1991 through 2017 for information about how the TDS was conducted from 1991 through 2017, as well as the results from this time period.
Abt, Eileen, Judith Spungen, Régis Pouillot, Margaret Gamalo-Siebers, and Mark Wirtz. “Update on dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine from U.S. food and drug administration’s total diet study: 2008–2012.” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 28, 21–30 (2018). DOI:10.1038/jes.2016.78.
Anderson, D. L., and W. C. Cunningham. “Compton suppression spectrometry for analysis of short-lived neutron activation products in foods.” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 276, No.1 23–28, (2008). DOI: 10.1007/s10967-007-0404-x.
Andrzejewski, Denis, John A. G. Roach, Martha L. Gay, and Steven M. Musser. “Analysis of Coffee for the Presence of Acrylamide by LC-MS/MS.” J. Agric. Food Chem., 52, 1996-2002 (2004).
Briguglio, Stephanie, Stuart Chirtel, Judith Spungen, P. Isaac Rabbani, Dana Hoffman-Pennesi, and Mark Wirtz. “Sodium Trends in Selected U.S. Total Diet Study Foods, 2003-2011.” Procedia Food Science 4, 27-38 (2015).
Carriquiry, Alicia L, Judith H Spungen, Suzanne P Murphy, Pamela R Pehrsson, Johanna T Dwyer, WenYen Juan, and Mark S Wirtz. “Variation in the iodine concentrations of foods: considerations for dietary assessment.” Am J Clin Nutr 104(Suppl):877S–87S (2016).
Eckhoff, Karen M., and Amund Maage. “Iodine Content in Fish and Other Food Products from East Africa Analyzed by ICP-MS.” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 10, 270–282, ARTICLE NO. FC970541 (1997).
Egan, Sara Kathleen, Philip Michael Bolger, And Clark Dewitt Carrington. “Update of US FDA’s Total Diet Study food list and diets.” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 17, 573–582 (2007). DOI:10.1038/sj.jes.7500554.
Egan, Sara Kathleen, S. S. -H. Tao, J. A. T. Pennington, and Philip Michael Bolger. “US Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study: intake of nutritional and toxic elements, 1991-96.” Food Additives & Contaminants, 19:2, 103 – 125 (2002). DOI: 10.1080/02652030110071354.
Gartrell, Marcia J., John C. Craun, David S. Podrebarac, and Ellis L. Gunderson. “Pesticides, Selected Elements, and Other Chemicals in Infant and Toddler Total Diet Samples, October 1979-September 1980.” J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 68, 1163-1183.
Gavelek, Alexandra, Judith Spungen, Dana Hoffman-Pennesi, Brenna Flannery, Laurie Dolan, Sherri Dennis, and Suzanne Fitzpatrick. “Lead exposures in older children (males and females 7–17 years), women of childbearing age (females 16–49 years) and adults (males and females 18+ years): FDA total diet study 2014–16.” Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 37:1, 104-109 (2020). DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2019.1681595.
Gunderson, E.L. “FDA Total Diet Study, July 1986-April 1991, Dietary Intakes of Pesticides, Selected Elements, and Other Chemicals.” JAOAC 78(6):1353-1363 (1995).
Hoffman-Pennesi, Dana, Judith Spungen, P. Isaac Rabbani, Stephanie Briguglio, and Mark Wirtz. “Evaluation of U.S. Total Diet Study Data on Selenium.” Procedia Food Science. 4, 79-85 (2015).
Juan, WenYen, Paula R Trumbo, Judith H Spungen, Johanna T Dwyer, Alicia L Carriquiry, Thea P Zimmerman, Christine A Swanson, and Suzanne P Murphy. “Comparison of 2 methods for estimating the prevalences of inadequate and excessive iodine intakes.” Am J Clin Nutr 104(Suppl):888S–97S (2016).
Koh, Eunmi, Hyehyung Shin, Miyong Yon, Ji Woon Nam, Yoonna Lee, Dohee Kim, Jeeyeon Lee, Meehye Kim, Sung-Kug Park, Hoon Choi and Cho-il Kim. “Measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to total mercury and lead in total diet study for Koreans.” Nutrition Research and Practice (2012) 6(5):436-443. https://e-nrp.org/DOIx.php?id=10.4162/nrp.2012.6.5.436.
Laug, E.P., A. Mikalis, H.M. Bollinger, J.M. Dimitroff, (B) M.J. Deutsch, D. Duffy, H.C. Pillsbury, and H.W. Loy, (C) P.A. Mills. “Total Diet Study: A. Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 Content. B. Nutrient Content. C. Pesticide Content.” (1963).
Maalouf, Joyce, Mary E. Cogswell, Janelle P. Gunn, Christine J. Curtis, Donna Rhodes, Kathy Hoy, Pamela Pehrsson, Melissa Nickle, and Robert Merritt, “Monitoring the Sodium Content of Restaurant Foods: Public Health Challenges and Opportunities.” Am J Public Health (2013) 103:e21–e30. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301442.
Murray, Clarence William, Sara Kathleen Egan, Henry Kim, Nega Beru and Philip Michael Bolger. “US Food and Drug Administration’s Total Diet Study: Dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine.” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2008) 18, 571–580. DOI:10.1038/sj.jes.7500648.
Pehrsson, Pamela R, Kristine Y Patterson, Judith H Spungen, Mark S Wirtz, Karen W Andrews, Johanna T Dwyer, and Christine A Swanson, “Iodine in food- and dietary supplement–composition databases.” Am J Clin Nutr 104(Suppl):868S–76S (2016).
Pennington, J.A.T., and S.A. Schoen. “Contributions of Food Groups to Estimated Intakes of Nutritional Elements: Results from the FDA Total Diet Studies, 1982-1991.” Internat. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 66 (1996) 342-349.
Pennington, J.A.T. and S.A. Schoen. “Total Diet Study: Estimated Dietary Intakes of Nutritional Elements, 1982-1991.” Internat. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 66 (1996) 350-362.
Pennington, J.A.T., S.G. Capar, and C.H. Parfait. “History of the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study (Part II), 1987-1993.” JAOAC 79(1):163-170 (1996).
Pennington, J.A.T. “The Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study: History, Methodology, and Results.” Presented at the International Meeting on Pesticide Residues '94, November 28-29, Almeria (1994).
Pennington, J.A.T. “The 1990 Revision of the FDA Total Diet Study.” J. of Nutr. Educ. 24(4):173-178 (1992).
Pennington, J.A.T. “Nutritional elements of the Total Diet Study.” Health Media of America 10(5): 39-40 (1992).
Pennington, J.A.T. “Total diet studies: the identification of core foods in the United States food supply.” Food Additives and Contaminants 9(3):253-264 (1992).
Pennington, Jean A. T., Barbara E. Young, and Dennis B. Wilson. “Nutritional Elements in U. S. Diets: Results from the Total Diet Study, 1982 to 1986.” J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 89(5), 659-664 (1989).
Pennington, J.A.T. and E.L. Gunderson. “History of the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study - 1961 to 1987.” JAOAC 70(5):772-782 (1987).
Pennington, Jean A. T., Barbara E. Young, Dennis B. Wilson, Roger D. Johnson, and John E. Vanderveen. “Mineral Content of Foods and Total Diets: The Selected Minerals in Foods Survey, 1982 to 1984.” J. Am. Diet. Assoc. (1986) 86, 876-891.
Pennington, J.A.T. “Revision of the Total Diet Study food list and diets.” JADA 82(2):166-173 (1983).
Pennington, J. A. T. “Documentation for the Revised Total Diet Study: Food List and Diets.” NTIS PB82-192154 (May 1981).
Spungen, Judith. “Children’s exposures to lead and cadmium: FDA total diet study 2014-16.” Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 36:6, 893-903 (2019). DOI:10.1080/19440049.2019.1595170.
US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration and National Institute of Health (USDA, FDA, and ODS-NIH). 2022. Database for the Iodine Content of Common Foods Release 2.0. accessed 7/6/2022 https://www.ars.usda.gov/northeast-area/beltsville-md-bhnrc/beltsville-human-nutrition-research-center/methods-and-application-of-food-composition-laboratory/mafcl-site-pages/iodine/.
If you have questions about the FDA Total Diet Study, email TDS@fda.hhs.gov.