GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Database
This database allows access to opinions and conclusions from 115 SCOGS reports published between 1972-1980 on the safety of over 370 Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food substances. The GRAS ingredient reviews were conducted by the Select Committee in response to a 1969 White House directive by President Richard M. Nixon (see History of GRAS and SCOGS).
The SCOGS database allows users to search for the SCOGS opinion and conclusion, and includes the United States Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR) citation for those GRAS food substances that have been codified in the CFR. Many of the SCOGS reports reviewed more than one GRAS substance and each substance was evaluated and assigned its own individual type of conclusion on safety; Type 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, as shown in the table below.
The SCOGS Conclusions were made by scientific experts outside of FDA. The complete background of the Select Committee is described in the History of GRAS and SCOGS.
|Type of Conclusion||Definition|
|1||There is no evidence in the available information on [substance] that demonstrates, or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect, a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current or might reasonably be expected in the future.|
|2||There is no evidence in the available information on [substance] that demonstrates a hazard to the public when it is used at levels that are now current and in the manner now practiced. However, it is not possible to determine, without additional data, whether a significant increase in consumption would constitute a dietary hazard.|
|3||While no evidence in the available information on [substance] demonstrates a hazard to the public when it is used at levels that are now current and in the manner now practiced, uncertainties exist requiring that additional studies be conducted.|
|4||The evidence on [substance] is insufficient to determine that the adverse effects reported are not deleterious to the public health should it be used at former levels and in the manner formerly practiced.|
|5||In view of the almost complete lack of biological studies, the Select Committee has insufficient data upon which to evaluate the safety of [substance] as a [intended use].|
Complete reports containing details of the safety studies that formed the basis of the opinions and conclusions are available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) at the National Technical Reports Library (NTRL); search the accession number found in the SCOGS database to find the specific reports.