Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA)
Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRAs) between FDA and foreign regulatory authorities allow drug inspectors to rely upon information from drug inspections conducted within each other’s borders. Under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, enacted in 2012, FDA has the authority to enter into agreements to recognize drug inspections conducted by foreign regulatory authorities if FDA determined those authorities are capable of conducting inspections that met U.S. requirements.
- Yield greater efficiencies for U.S. and foreign regulatory systems by avoiding duplication of inspections; and,
- Enable reallocation of resources towards inspection of drug manufacturing facilities with potentially higher public health risks across the globe.
FDA has MRAs in force with the EU and the United Kingdom, respectively. On January 12, 2023, the FDA signed an MRA with Switzerland. Before this MRA enters into force, the FDA must determine whether Switzerland is capable of conducting inspections that meet U.S. requirements, and the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products (Swissmedic), must make a similar determination with respect to the FDA meeting Swiss requirements.
|Country||Regulatory authority for medicinal products for human and/or veterinary use*||Date Recognized|
|United Kingdom||Veterinary Medicines Directorate||September 24, 2021|
|Slovakia||State Institute for Drug Control / Štátny ústav pre kontrolu liečiv (ŠÚKL)**||July 11, 2019|
|Germany||Zentralstelle der Länder für Gesundheitsschutz bei Arzneimitteln und Medizinprodukten (ZLG)||June 26, 2019|
|Luxembourg||Minìstere de la Santé, Division de la Pharmacie et des Médicaments||June 10, 2019|
|Netherlands||Healthcare Inspectorate / Inspectie voor de Gezondheidszorg (IGZ)||June 10, 2019|
|Bulgaria||Bulgarian Drug Agency
ИЗПЪЛНИТЕЛНА АГЕНЦИЯ ПО ЛЕКАРСТВАТА
|April 29, 2019|
|Cyprus||Ministry of Health – Pharmaceutical Services
Φαρμακευτικές Υπηρεσίες, Υπουργείο Υγείας
|April 29, 2019|
|Poland||The Main Pharmaceutical Inspectorate/
Główny Inspektorat Farmaceutyczny (GIF)
|February 7, 2019|
|Slovenia||Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices of the Republic of Slovenia
Javna agencija Republike Slovenije za zdravila in medicinske pripomočke (JAZMP)
|February 7, 2019|
|Estonia||State Agency of Medicines / Ravimiamet||November 28, 2019|
|Belgium||Federal agency for medical and health products / Fedraal Agentschap voor geneesmiddelen en gezondheidsproducten/ Agence fédérale des médicaments et produits de santé||November 16, 2018|
|Denmark||Danish Medicines Agency / Laegemiddelstyrelsen||November 16, 2018|
|Finland||Finnish Medicines Agency / Lääkealan turvallisuus- ja kehittämiskeskus (FIMEA)||November 16, 2018|
|Latvia||State Agency of Medicines / Zāļu valsts aģentūra||November 16, 2018|
|Portugal||National Authority of Medicines and Health Products / INFARMED, I.P / Autoridade Nacional do Medicamento e Produtos de Saúde, I.P||September 14, 2018|
|Ireland||Health Products Regulatory Authority (HPRA)||June 1, 2018|
|Lithuania||State Medicines Control Agency / Valstybinė vaistų kontrolės tarnyba||June 1, 2018|
|Greece||National Organisation for Medicines||March 1, 2018|
|Hungary||National Institute of Pharmacy and Nutrition||March 1, 2018|
|Czech Republic||State Institute for Drug Control||March 1, 2018|
|Romania||National Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices||March 1, 2018|
|United States||Food and Drug Administration||November 1, 2017|
|Austria||Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety / Österreichische Agentur für Gesundheit und Ernährungssicherheit (GmbH)||November 1, 2017|
|Croatia||Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices / Agencija za lijekove i medicinske proizvode (HALMED)||November 1, 2017|
|France||French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety / Agence nationale de sécurité du medicament et des produits de santé||November 1, 2017|
|Italy||Italian Medicines Agency / Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco||November 1, 2017|
|Malta||Medicines Regulatory Authority***||November 1, 2017|
|Spain||Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices/ Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios||November 1, 2017|
|Sweden||Medical Products Agency / Läkemedelsverket||November 1, 2017|
|United Kingdom||Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency||November 1, 2017|
*Limitations: The capability determinations apply to routine surveillance inspections. In the future the following product and inspection types may be included in the coverage of the agreement, pending further consideration:
- Vaccines for human use
- Plasma derived pharmaceuticals
- Investigational products (clinical trial material), specific to each agreement
- Veterinary products (for European Union authorities
The FDA and the UK have considered the issue of expanding the scope of the MRA to include vaccines and plasma-derived pharmaceuticals for human use, and decided to consider the issue again in July 2025 based on further assessment.
The FDA and the EU have considered the issue of expanding the scope of the MRA to include vaccines and plasma-derived pharmaceuticals for human use. FDA has decided to consider the issue again in July 2025 based on further assessment.
Excluded from the MRA scope are: Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs), human blood, human plasma, human tissues and organs, cells (Swiss MRA), and veterinary immunologicals.
** Slovakia – only for inspections of chemically synthesized active pharmaceutical ingredients intended for use in drug products for human oral administration and manufactured in a dedicated, single product facility.
*** Malta - capability excludes sterile or aseptically processed drugs and biological products; and non-sterile, highly potent drug products.
- Agreement on Mutual Recognition between the Swiss Confederation and the United States of America Relating to Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practice, OGPS Statement, January 12, 2023
- FDA and United Kingdom Announce Mutual Recognition Agreement for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practice Inspections of Animal Drugs
- Ensuring Patient Safety and Drug Manufacturing Quality Through Partnership with European Union Regulators
- U.S.-UK Mutual Recognition Agreement
- U.S.-EU Mutual Recognition Agreement Sectoral Annex for GMPs
- Frequently Asked Questions -Mutual Recognition Agreement
- Press Release - FDA takes unprecedented step toward more efficient global pharmaceutical manufacturing inspections
- Press Release- Mutual Recognition promises new framework for pharmaceutical inspections for United States and European Union
- Four more EU Member States benefit from EU-US mutual recognition agreement for inspections